A city directory places an individual or a business in a specific location at a particular time. A directory may list the residents or businesses alphabetically by name or by address or both. Often, only the head of a household is listed. City directories have been published at varying intervals in New York City since Telephone directories are published listings of telephone subscribers in a geographic area or of subscribers to services provided by a telephone company in the geographic area.
The first telephone directory was published in , though many people did not have telephones until after World War II. Telephone directories are usually revised annually. Subscriber names are generally listed alphabetically, together with their postal or street addresses and telephone numbers. Generally, every subscriber in the geographic coverage area is listed unless the subscriber requests exclusion of their number from the directory, often for a fee. City and telephone directories are particularly useful in connection with research in census records.
Genealogy Basics Research Guide: City and Telephone Directories
For those censuses that have been indexed by name, the researcher usually does not have to know the precise address where a person was living in order to locate him or her. For censuses without name indexes, however, a census search requires a street address. Census takers and census indexers also sometimes misspell names in ways that make them difficult to find. An alphabetized list of residents or telephone subscribers, with their addresses, can be obtained from a city or telephone directory published in a year close to the census year.
Therefore, if you are unable to locate a person in census records when searching by name, you may find them instead by browsing the census records for a particular address at which they had lived. A married housewife rarely was included. Because a widow usually was listed with her deceased husband's name such as Mrs.
Tom Jones , it is possible to use that entry as an indication of when the husband died. That clue can point to death records, obituaries, probate records, and cemetery plots. After that year, telephone directories became the only analogous source. Sometimes a person disappears from the directory for a year or two and then shows up again, sometimes at the same address.
Careful examination of city directories can identify other individuals with the same surname. This website contains links to historical city directories for many U. These links include both free websites and subscription database websites. The Brooklyn Public Library has placed copies of the Brooklyn City Directory and of the following alphabetical and business classified telephone directories for New York City online:.
On Ancestry. New York Public Library: Staten Island Directories: January , P S contracted with Bell for the listing of the following trade names in the business white pages of the Birmingham telephone directory: Thorne's letter, Mr. The closing date for the telephone directory was April 26, However, items such Fronteer with infringement of Hutchinson's copyright of its comprehensive alphabetical telephone directory for its service area white pages.
Hutchinson seeks an injunction and damages for the The District Court divided the trial into two phases. The first phase was to determine the copyrightability of Hutchinson's white pages directory ; the second was to determine if a valid copyright had b The directory Hutchinson publishes, for which it holds a copyright, contains a white pages section and a section including a In Feist, the Supreme Court decided that even extensive copying of another's telephone directory white pages did not implicate copyright protection.
The raw data consisting of names, t Although the names were arranged alphabetically, there "is nothing remotely creative about arranging names alphabetically in a white pages directory Telephone Service Co. Your request therefore invites a very timely review of the status and protection In March , Mountain Sta Mountain States contends that liability for omission in the white pages of its directory is limited by the limitation of liability contained in the General Exchange Ta It is required by law to distribute to its subscribers a white pages telephone directory.
The white pages , the familiar Haines advance "signature copies" of its white pages received from the printer prior to public distribution. Haines used the signature copies to discover new or changed names or telephone numbers to be Plaintiff-appellant signed a form denominated "Order for Directory Representation" seeking the placement of advertisements in the New York Telephone Company's Camillus and Syracuse telephone book yellow pages.
The form was not signed by either respondent or its authorized agent for the solicitation of advertisements, respondent Reuben H. Donnelly Corp Most of plaintiff's main office business is accomplished over the telephone. The defendant failed to list, in the white pages of the telephone directory , Joy's main office Prior to the distribution of the directory , the omission in the white pages was discovered, and the defendant installed an intercept on the uptown offi Telephone Company for damages caused by the failure of South Central to list plaintiff's telephone numbers properly in the telephone directory for the Nashville area.
At the close of all the proof In August of , when the Birmingham telephone directory was delivered, Morgan and Speed discovered that Speed's name was listed properly in both the Yellow and White White Pages of the telephone directory just as he wished. Morgan's name was at all times listed in the White Pages , but was omitted from the After a jury verdict in the amount of Statutes to provide telecommunications services in certain areas of Florida.
Verizon, as a local exchange company, is required to distribute a white pages directory listing its customers' telephone numbers See Fla. Code Rule Verizon contracts with Verizon Directories "Directories" , its corporate affiliate, to publish the required white pages directories. Directories also publishes and sells yellow In support of this proposition, the Commission cited its earlier order, In re Investigation into Regulatory Assessment Fee Feist , violated the copyright laws by copying the white pages of its telephone directory. Feist contends that RTSC has violated the The telephone directories have been copyrighted and the copyrights have been registered each year as published.
The telephone directory , which is the subject of this lawsuit, is marked with an appropriate Telephone Directory. This directory covers some of the same geographical areas as the directory produced by RTSC but also covers some additional areas. Dex to have Mobile's telephone numbers listed in the business white pages and to have an advertisement in the yellow pages. Dex advised Mobile that its phone numbers could not be published in the On March 19, , Mr. Robert Bell, acting for plaintiff, and Mr.
Tom Ogden, defendant's directory repre These directories consist of two sections, the alphabetical section or white pages , and the classified section or Yellow Pages. Publication of the alphabetical section is mandated by the Arkansas Pages — contract limiting liability — validity A contract provision limiting a telephone company's liability for errors or omissions in an advertisement in the Yellow Pages of a telephone directory to First Cause of Action: For a number of years an advertisement of the plaintiff's business was published in the "Yellow Pages " of the defendant's telephone directory for the City of Greensboro From this computer data base, Donnelley printed sales lead sheets, containing telephone numbers for In the present case, Trans West-ern did not The KCC requires all telephone companies operating in Kansas to issue at least annually a dated telephone directory.
The telephone directories published by RTSC contain The white pages list in alphabetical order the names, addresses and telephone numbers of RTSC's telephone subscribers. The yellow pages list RTSC's business subscribers alphabeticall The advertising contained in the directories, especially the advertising conta The content of these directories, commonly known as " white pages ," primarily is comprised of alphabetical listings of IBT's customers, followed Company, Inc.
Each directory contains an "Addressakey," or street address directory , and a "Telokey," or telephone numerical directory. See Arden Exhibit 1. Fronteer Directory Co. Telephone Directory Publishers, F. Duncan, F. API filed a motion for partial summary judgment and asserted that its liability was limited under the contract with Pigman's On behalf of Pigman and for itself, and acting through its agent, Sheila M. Corcoran, Berger The telephone company raised as a defense a Without this service, the public would find it difficult, if not impossible, to locate a particular type of business in the white pages.
For example, Mr. Allen's business, Personnel Resources, would appear under the letter Through the telephone company's error, no listing was made in either type face. Damages were sought for Hutchinson Telephone Co. Fronteer Directory Co The names, addresses, and phone numbers in a telephone directory are "facts Although West relied on Hutchinson Telephone Co. See, e. William Morrow Co. We agree with the district court's dismissal of Pages and they were informed that they would have to install telephone service at their Mesquite premises before such advertising could be accepted.
They completed their move to the new location and The inequality of bargaining power between the telephone company and the businessmen desiring advertising in the yellow pages directory is more apparent than real. It is not dif See University Hills, P. Ameritech Pages Plus directories Yellow Pages. At that meeting, Exmeyer and Ricci reviewed and made various notations on a copy of Pinnacle's Directory Advertising Order. After reviewing those Hutchinson claims that Fronteer Directory Company Fronteer violated the copyright laws by copying the white pages section of Hutchinson's telephone book.
Hutchinson provides telephone service within the Both the Fronteer and the Hutchinson telephone directories contain white pages and yellow page advertising.
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Upon commencing trial of the matter on By its charter, Hutchinson is required to publish a telephone book. Because Hutchinson is required by law to publish its white pages , the In both cases Plaintiff's telephone directories are printed partly on white pages The portion printed on white pages lists in alphabetical order the names, addresses and telephone numbers of plaintiff's customers who elect to have their listings published The Court clarified the scope of a copyright in compilations: Thus, facts as such may not be copyrighted but, if there is originality in arrangement or selection of facts, such as in a telephone directory , the directory may be copyrighted See Hutchinson Telephone Co.
Action to recover damages allegedly caused by telephone company's failure to include beauty school's listing in appropriate section of yellow pages directory Mountain Bell contends that since plaintiff did not pay the contract Commission, Rural Telephone publishes and distributes an annual telephone directory.
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In addition to its white pages listings, Rural Telephone's directory also contains yellow pages advert Feist Publications is a private Kansas corporation that distributes a competing telephone directory in northwest Kansas. The directory includes communities outside of Rural Telephone's service area, a The district court found Rural Telephone possessed monopoly power in the yellow pages advertising market and Rural Telephone's decision not to license its white pages In plaintiff was listed in the alphabetical or white pages directory of the defendant telephone company.
Pursuant to contract between the parties, the plaintiff in also had a Utilities Commission of Ohio is saved harmless from liability for errors and omissions in its white pages directory. Correll v. Ohio Bell Telephone Co Contracts — Telephone directory — Yellow pages listing — Failure of company to carry agreed The doctor's name was properly listed in the white pages of both directories for both years. The evidence reflects that during the Upon receiving the office manager's telephone order for a yellow- pages listing for By its own admission, Bell Media is not complaining about Trans Western's production of Media places its copyright symbol on every page of its Wichita directory — white , blue, and yellow.
The following represents the gist of plaintiff's allegation: Media purchases In the present Marks, So. The agreement consisted of several pages The directory consists of two parts, the White Pages which is an alphabetical listing of In both the Yellow and White Pages , Mountain States will, for an additional charge, print the telephone subscriber's name in bold face type font, rather than Rehearing Denied November 6, Car rental corporation brought action for declaratory judgment as to its right to advertise in telephone directory In June plaintiff ordered directory listings for the editions of the white pages and yellow pages.
When the directories were issued, plaintiff was incorrectly listed in The court ruled that 1 plaintiff has no private right of action under ORS They each publish a telephone directory containing an alphabetical list of the persons served by the company, listed according to municipality. Commonly called the " Defendant's selling point is that his telephone book is better than that offered by plaintiffs because his white page listings Feist Publications v.
Rural Telephone Services, U. In that case, Rural, a public utility providing telephone service, published a typical When Rural refused to license its white pages , Feist extracted the listings it needed from Rural's Feist Publications specialized in area-wide telephone directories and sought a license from Rural for In Southwestern Bell, F. The normal inclusion of yellow pages with white pages alphabetical listings in the same book supports this characterization.
The yellow pages at issue in this case certainly more resemble a Northwestern Bell periodically publishes yellow pages directories that contain listings and advertising purchased by businesses and services organizations within the area served by the directory. It contains pages. Plaintiff first charges that defendants have copied, in a telephone directory published by defendants, listings and art work from plaintiff's copyrighted telephone directory in violation of the Copyright Each directory consists of a white pages section and a yellow pages section.
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The white Feist, S. It is an ag This appeal concerns the scope of copyright protection provided a classified telephone directory published by appellee Key Publications, Inc. This computation was for the time that Rozy's yellow page advertising was omitted from the yellow pages in the telephone directory. We reverse and remand for a trial on Citizen had his name listed in Bell's telephone directory for many years in the classified directory or the yellow pages under his business name The white and yellow pages are still bound together in one directory in some geographic areas, making it impracticable In addition, charges for advertisements in RBOC directories may be bundled together with charges for In the printing and distribution of the directory in question the telephone number of the plaintiff was left out entirely in the white pages , so refe The appeal requires us to consider the law enunciated in Feist Pu Account executives solicited A number of these advertisements were very comparable to those in the TransWestern directory.
The infringement claim alleges defendants Accordingly, the defendants could not have violated Tomaydo's proprietary rights To be original, the work must be "original to the author. Feist, U. The list of ingredients is merely a It held that neither the information copied from the original white pages no It is a mistake, however, to conclude that the Supreme Court in The directories of Archie and Adrian were printed in one book of about 15 pages. It also carried some classified advertising for businesses in surrounding There was no telephone operator at Archie.
Plaintiffs arranged for their usual listings for the directory to be delivered by March 1, , but when it came out they found that "Warner Oil Limitations of liability for errors in connection with classified advertising on the "Yellow Pages " in a directory are placed upon a It is common knowledge that defendant's yellow pages is the only directory of classified telephone listings freely They had been listed yearly in the Racine yellow pages and regularly had one display advertisement in that directory Thus, we are called upon to apply Feist Publicati Observing the inherent tension between the axiom of cop In Feist, the plaintiff was a telephone company required by a state regulation to annually issue an updated telephone directory.
The plaintiff published a typical telephone directory con The Court found th After plaintiff refused to license its white pages listings to defendant, defendant used them without plaintiffs It is noted that provisions limiting the liability for directory errors or omissions and which have been ap Furthermore, this Court is convinced that plaintiff cannot, as a matter of law, recover on the claim that PACS's listing was omitted in the white Pilot Industries was listed in the white pages.
Therefore, defendant fulfilled all duties owed to the plaintiff under the tariffs, rules and There is no genuine issue for trial because the plaintiff is limited by the tariff to recovery of damages in the pro rata amount for the period during which it experienced service interruptions.
The directory publishing operations were subdi We recognize that a listing of telephone numbers like the white pages is part and parcel of the "service to or for the public.
These courts have found generally that the yellow pages portion of a telephone directory is simply one source of advertising and does not constitute a monopoly service such as th The format of the Yellow Pages before us is sufficiently distinct from the " white pages " phone directory involved in Feist to Rural expended sufficient effort to make the white pages directory useful, but insufficient creativity to make it o Feist involved Rural Telephone Service Company's allegation of infringement with regard to the " white pages " residential phone listings by Feist Publications, Inc This arrangement may, technically speaking, owe its origin to Rural;.
But there is nothing remotely creative about arranging names alphabetically in a white pages directory Both negligence and breach of contract are alleged in connection with 1 Bell's failure to print appellee's individual business listing, a in the white pages , or b under the classified heading "attorneys Wilson v. However, the same number was also erroneously listed in the yellow pages as the number for Michael D.
Mountain Bell in listing the same telephone number in the yellow-page directory for the law firm of Atkin, Wright and The Telephone Company's liability arising from errors in or omissions of directory listings shall be limited to and satisfied by a refund not exceeding the amount of the charges for such We held that, since the directory's author had "solicited, gathered, filed, sorted, and maintained the Under originality case law a work need not be artistic or novel to achieve pro In Hutchinson Telephone Co.
Summary judgment for defendant. Plaintiff appeals. Reversed and remanded Pages is the only directory of classified telephone listings freely distributed to all the telephone subscribers in the Flint area. It is not Plaintiff, an insurance agent, contracted to place several advertisements in the Flint classified telephone directory.
The defendant, Michigan Bell Telephone Company, accepted Rural Telephone Service Co. Our brethren of the Fourth Circuit, in choosing to defer judgment on the The ad approved by plaintiff and accepted by defendant was to appear as Further, there is some evidence on record that SBC was apparently un Bell , for a mistake in Bear Safety's advertisement appearing in the Yellow Pages of the telephone directory. The advertisement consisted of a standard listing of name, address and phone number The contract provision: Jessica Pers, D. Putnam's Sons and Berkeley Pub. Andrews, F. Johnson Publishing Co.
McTighe v. New England Telephone and Telegraph Co. See generally Annot. Foley, Texaco, Inc. White Plains, NY, on the brief , for appellant. All of the articles are received by the journal's editors through unsolicited submission by various authors. Authors are informed that they must transfer the copyright in their writings The average monthly issue of Catalysis runs approximately pages and comprises 20 to 25 articles. Chickering, a chemical engineer at the Beacon research In the edition of the directory , which was in use in the Denver area from July to October , plaintiff's professional listing was omitted From dismissal of action as to claim If so, this case is indistinguishable from Feist In deciding which As required by the terms of its state-granted monopoly When the ads failed to appear in the Geneseo directory in either or , and in the Freeport directory in